Historical Development of Railways elu taa na Turkey

akụkọ ihe mere eme development ruo taa toki ụzọ ụgbọ okporo ígwè
akụkọ ihe mere eme development ruo taa toki ụzọ ụgbọ okporo ígwè

Akụkọ banyere ụzọ ụgbọ oloko bidoro ịrụ ọrụ azụmaahịa na 1830; O kpughee usoro nke na - akpụzi ụwa nke ugbu a. Ọ bụrụ na anyị elee akụkọ banyere okporo ụzọ ụgbọ oloko n'ime ụwa, ọ ga - ekwe omume ịhụ nnukwu mmetụta ụwa.

Mmepe nke netwọala kachasị mkpa na Europe, mmetụta nke teknụzụ Britain, ịmepụta usoro ndị buru ibu na India na ọtụtụ mgbe e mesịrị na China, yana iwu nke transcontinental na United States; ka ụzọ okporo ụzọ si etolite, bụrụ ọsọsọ, mfe karịa ma dịkwa nchebe. A na-ahụ etu ihe ndị a sirila gbanwee ndụ ndị mmadụ yana mmadụ mgbanwe ole ọzọ sụrụ ọsụ ụzọ. O doro anya etu ụzọ ụgbọ oloko si enyere aka kọọ ụwa anyị bi na ya na etu o si eme ka mmepe na mgbanwe dị na mba niile. N'ikwu ya n'ụzọ dị mfe, ụzọ ụgbọ okporo ígwè bụ ụwa 19. N'agbata nkeji iri na otu na nke ikpeazụ nke narị afọ nke iri na itolu, ọ tụgharịrị site na ọnọdụ ebe ọ na-esiri ndị mmadụ ike ịhapụ obodo ha ma ọ bụ gafere ahịa obodo nso, ebe enwere ike imeri kọntinent n'ime ụbọchị ole na ole kama ọnwa.

Traingbọ ahụ na-aga n’iji magnetism, na-amalite n’ọkụ ọ na-enweta n’ọkụ. Mpepe ụgbọ ala na - eme ka ụgbọ elu ahụ dịkwuo ngwa ngwa, na - amụba ọrụ na arụmọrụ nke ụgbọ oloko. N'ebe ebe teknụzụ ụgbọ elu dị ọsọ rutere, mmekọrịta nke ọdụ ụgbọ ala na ụgbọ ala ndị nwere ụkwụ na-amalite na mbido njem ahụ wee kwụsịrị na njedebe njedebe. Ndị njem na-achọ njem ngwa ngwa na ntụsara ahụ na-agbanwe mmasị na mmasị ha. Uru nke ụzọ ụgbọ okporo ígwè dị na njikọ njem na-eme ka uru nke ụzọ ụgbọ elu dịkwuo elu.

Ndị Anatolia zutere n'okporo ụzọ ụgbọ oloko na 33 afọ mgbe afọ 1856 gachara iji ụgbọ mmiri ikuku na-eme ihe na nke mbụ n'ụwa. 23 Septemba Mepụta nke eriri İzmir Aydın na 1856 abụrụla ihe dị ịrịba ama na ịkpụzi ụdị mpaghara a, ọdịnala na akụnụba.

1986 na 2018 Railways
1986 na 2018 Railways

N’oge 1923-1950, nke echere n’ọdụ ụgbọ oloko dịka amụma obodo, e wuru ngụkọta kilomita nke 134 nke ụzọ ụgbọ elu, nke nkezi XkmX kilomita kwa afọ. N’oge a, a na-ahụ ụzọ ụgbọ okporo ígwè dị ka ihe mmeghari ohuru nke metụtara mmepe na mmepe.

Movezọ ụgbọ okporo ígwè na mmalite nke Republic ga-ezughị ezu ma ọ bụrụ na ewere ya dị ka ntinye ụgbọ njem. Otu n’ime ihe atụ kachasị dị iche na otu esi ebuga njem na-agbanwe ọha n’obodo a bụ oge ụgbọ elu Turkish.

N'iburu n'uche oge a, ihe omumu ugbo ala, ulo akwukwo, ulo ndi mmadu, ndi dibia, ndi egwuregwu, ndi ulo obibi ha; n'eziokwu, a ga-ahụ gburugburu a iji mee ka ọha mmadụ gbanwee.

N’oge ahụ, okporo ụzọ ụgbọ oloko bụ mmeghari mmepe, mkpokọta nke ụgbọ njem, ihe mmeghari nke ọhụrụ yana ọrụ nchekwa na-enweghị aha maka nsonaazụ na ihe ngosi ndị anyị kpọtụrụ aha.

O di nwute, oru ngo a na –adabere n’elu okporo uzo ka ejiri nwayọ kpuchie 1946 na mgbe emesiri 1950, site na nsonaazụ nke oge oge, rue afọ 2003.

Site na 1951 ruo na njedebe nke afọ 2003, ebe atumatu iwu maka njem njem na-ebute site na mgbe Agha Secondwa nke Abụọ buru ụzọ ma nwee nsogbu oge, a na-eleghara ụzọ ụgbọ oloko anya kpamkpam ma naanị ụgbọ okporo ígwè 945 kilomita.

N'ime afọ 2003-2004; atumatu atụmatụ ulo oru di nkpa ka emejuputara n'ọdịnihu, ma edobe atumatu itinye uchu n’okporo uzo ugboigwe.

N’agbata afọ 2004-2018, e wuru kilomita kilomita nke 138 nke ụzọ ụgbọ elu, na nkezi XkmX kilomita kwa afọ. A na - arụzi ụzọ ụgbọ okporo ígwè 1.983 kilomita dị ugbu a.

Mba anyị amalitela naghachi mkpa ọ dị na njem ụgbọ oloko na itinye ego ya na ya n'otu oge ọkachasị na 16 afọ gara aga. N'ilekwasị anya na ebumnuche 2023 anyị, mbọ anyị na-amịpụta mkpụrụ ugbu a.

1856-1920 / 1923 Oge Ottoman; Ihe-nketa a sitere na Republic of 4.136 kilomita nke ụzọ ụgbọ okporo ígwè.

Railways locomotive na-eje ozi dị ka ntọala na mmepe usoro ke Republic of Turkey, mgbe afọ nke nleghara anya 50 si 2003 afọ na-enwe ya ọlaedo afọ dị ka ọ bụ ebe mbụ afọ nke Republic. Ihe dị mkpa enyere okporo ụzọ ụgbọ elu egosila onwe ya na atụmatụ itinye ego iji mezuo ebumnuche 2023. Kemgbe 2003, 91,4 Billion TL emefuola na ngalaba ụzọ ụgbọ oloko.

Turkey nke na-agbakwụnye na-agba na-agba nke na-arụ elu-ọsọ okporo ígwè oru ngo kwụpụ site nzọụkwụ; Ankara-Eskişehir-İstanbul, Ankara-Kon-ya, Konya-Eskişehir-İstanbul okporo ụzọ ndị na-agba ọsọ agbaala ma mepee maka ọrụ.

Site na Baku-Tbilisi-Kars Railway na Marmaray / Bosphorus Tube Cross, a na-etinye ụzọ ụgbọ okporo ígwè Ọgbara ọhụrụ ugbua ma ụzọ ụgbọ elu Asia-Western nke Europe dịpụrụ adịpụ na-arụ ọrụ.

Marmaray 2013, ụgbọ njem ụwa pụrụ iche, nke e jiri teknụzụ ọhụụ na nke na-eguzogide ala ọma jijiji kachasị elu enwere ike, gbanwere akụkọ ihe mere eme nke Istanbul ma tinye ya n'ọrụ maka ndị anyị.

Ankara-Istanbul na Konya-Istanbul YHT 2014, nke eji otutu uzo eji wuo ulo, etinyere n’ozi. Ya mere, isi obodo nke obodo anyi jikọtara onwe ha site na YHT.

Kemgbe 2003, 538 km ọzọ usoro ahịrị na ụzọ ụgbọ oloko dị elu nke 1.213 km na etinyere ụgbọ elu mba anyị abanyela na 12.710 km.

Ogologo ụgbọ okporo ígwè (Km)

ot ot ot Nkụzi Ọdịdị Dị Elu Ego niile
(+ Station Railway Connection
(Sina isi) Ahịrị mkpokọta edoghi ogologo
Lines)
2003 8.697 2.262 10.959 - 10.959
2004 8.697 2.271 10.968 - 10.968
2005 8.697 2.276 10.973 - 10.973
2006 8.697 2.287 10.984 - 10.984
2007 8.697 2.294 10.991 - 10.991
2008 8.699 2.306 11.005 - 11.005
2009 8.686 2.322 11.008 397 11.405
2010 8.722 2.330 11.052 888 11.940
2011 8.770 2.342 11.112 888 12.000
2012 8.770 2.350 11.120 888 12.008
2013 8.846 2.363 11.209 888 12.097
2014 8.903 2.369 11.272 1.213 12.485
2015 8.947 2.372 11.319 1.213 12.532
2016 8.947 2.372 11.319 1.213 12.532
2017 9.023 2.372 11.395 1.213 12.608
2018 September 9.131 2.395 11.497 1.213 12.710

Mara: Thezọ ụgbọ oloko a na-agbagha agbagha ma rụkwaa nke 233 km agunyeghi na laini okporo ụzọ.

Ankara-Sivas, Ankara-Izmir High Speed ​​na Bursa-Bilecik, Konya-Karaman-Nigde (Ulu-barracks), Yenice-Mersin-Adana na Adana-Osmaniye-Gaziantep High Speed ​​Railway መስመር na-arụ ọrụ.

Ji ụgbọ okporo ígwè tracks, na mkpa, sleepers, fasteners amị ụlọ ọrụ malitere guzosie ike Turkey na malitere mmepụta na ogbo nke mmejuputa iwu-nke mba mmepe oru ngo n'ókè.

Egeray / İzban, nke na-enye ọrụ njem ụgbọ ala n'etiti İzmir na 2010; Enyerela oru a dika ihe nlere bu ihe nlere anya n’uwa n’etinye aka n’etiti ndi gọọmentị etiti na ndi oha obodo.

Na mgbakwunye na ihe owuwu ụzọ ụgbọ okporo ígwè ọhụrụ, enyere ọrụ maka ngbanwe nke oghere ndị dị ugbu a ma na-amalite mkpọsa nke okporo ụzọ. Ndobe zuru ezu na ntughari ohuru nke uzo 11.497 nke eriri nke 10.789 km.

Mmezi zuru ezu na imeghari ohuru ogologo ụzọ ụgbọ okporo ígwè (Km)

Mmezi zuru ezu na Mmeghari ohuru nke Ogologo Railway Line
Mmezi zuru ezu na Mmeghari ohuru nke Ogologo Railway Line

N'ihi ya; Site na ịbawanye ọsọ ụgbọ ala, ike usoro na ikike, njem ndị njem na nke ụgbọ mmiri aghọọla ahụ iru ala, dịkwa nchebe na ngwa ngwa.

Onu ogugu nke 12 nke ebe nlebara anya nke ihe omumu nke 9, nke na-aru oru na oru nkwadebe oru ngo n’ime mpaghara nwere ikike ibu njem zuru ezu, emechaala ma wuo nkeji 5 Mba anyị abịaruola nso ebumnuche nke imeziwanye njem njem site na ịnye njikọ nke mpaghara ụlọ ọrụ a haziri ahazi na netwọk ụgbọ okporo ígwè na ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri niile.

N’ụgbọ mmiri na-ebu ibu, a na-amalite ngwa ngagharị ụgbọ ala, a na-agbanwe ụgbọ njem site na ụzọ ụgbọ mmiri ka ọ bụrụ ọsọsọ, rụọ ọrụ karịa arụmọrụ. Taa, enwere ọrụ ụgbọ oloko mba na nke ụwa.

Emezigharịrị ndị njem ụgbọ ala na-adọkpụgharị, a na-atụkwasịwo YHT na ebe a na-adọba ụgbọala maka oge mbụ, enwetara ụgbọ okporo ígwè DMU na ọkụ eletrik na mmanụ ụgbọ ala ma na-arụ ọrụ.

Ọnọdụ ụgbọala (Piece)

YHT a dizel-kwadoro a dizel-kwadoro Arriki eletriki Diesel Array
locomotive
locomotive locomotive
M F M F M F M F M F M F
2003 470 371 74 56 74 56 88 74 49 31
2004 457 380 68 50 73 53 87 73 49 32
2005 461 379 68 49 71 53 86 72 49 33
2006 477 397 58 49 67 54 84 76 46 36
2007 472 406 58 48 67 58 83 78 44 35
2008 494 419 55 44 64 52 83 73 44 32
2009 7 6 502 409 48 38 64 56 83 70 52 41
2010 12 11 435 387 109 83 64 52 99 91 55 46
2011 12 11 433 381 109 81 45 40 101 91 56 44
2012 12 10 433 367 109 76 56 46 108 103 67 49
2013 12 10 428 341 109 75 53 45 113 106 77 47
2014 12 10 434 339 106 75 80 72 117 109 80 60
2015 13 13 439 340 108 77 94 58 117 100 80 60
2016 19 17 436 351 107 77 125 100 118 102 80 49
2017 19 19 436 353 107 71 125 118 115 104 87 62
2018 19 19 435 368 104 65 125 115 97 84 88 55

Ọnọdụ ụgbọala (iberibe)

PASSENGER WAGONS WAGONS UGO
The a na-Ibe Ike -Person The a na-Ibe Ike-ton
2003 965 55.414 16.070 624405
2004 993 56.860 16.004 625697
2005 996 56.865 16.102 642349
2006 993 55.377 16.320 664328
2007 1.010 56.421 17.041 691634
2008 995 54.822 17.079 682800
2009 990 54.196 17.607 696990
2010 965 53.774 17.773 698836
2011 962 52.866 18.200 761832
2012 944 52.071 18.167 752181
2013 933 50.585 18.607 808215
2014 916 49.962 18.967 837016
2015 913 49.782 18.841 832499
2016 872 49.224 19.570 882928
2017 859 49.252 15.979 810400
2018 August 853 48.767 16.363 882467

Mbelata ụgbọ ala ndị njem ga-aga n'ihu na usoro ahụ ka ụgbọ oloko Electric-Diesel setịpụrụ ụgbọ njem na ụgbọ oloko mpaghara na ọrụ ime obodo, ọkachasị na ọrụ YHT.

N'ime usoro ihe eji arụ ọrụ nke ugbu a, etinyekwara ego itinye aka na akara ya ma nyekwa ikike ime ka ụzọ niile eletrikiiki ma mata ihe. Na 2002, ogologo ahịrị ahịrị signaled site na 2.505 km rue 5.534 km; Ogologo eriri oku site na 2.122 km abawanyele na 5.056 km.

Mịnịstrị nke ọgbụgba ọkụ (HHT + Mgbakọ) Ogologo ahịrị (Km) (1 October 2017)

HHT Conventional Line nwere akara mgba ọkụ
HHT Conventional Line nwere akara mgba ọkụ

Site na usoro iwu nke na-eweta nnabata n'ime ụzọ ụgbọ okporo ígwè, ekewapụwo ụzọ ụgbọ okporo ígwè na akụrụngwa na ebugharị ma nyekwa ndị nwere ike ịnweta ụzọ ụgbọ oloko.

39 ejikọọla na ọdụ ụgbọ okporo ígwè site na larịị Tekirdağ-Muratlı na nke izizi.

Nmeghari ohuru nke ugboala na ọdụ ụgbọ oloko n’obodo ndị ahụ ka e mere ka ọ bụrụ etiti dọtara ma weta ndụ akụkọ ihe mere eme, ọdịnala na nke obodo.

Iji mee ka nchekwa okporo ụzọ dịkwuo elu, mgbada dị larịị na nrute nke ụzọ na ụzọ ụgbọ oloko ahụ si 4.520 gaa 2.909. Ndozi na-aga n’ihu n’ogwe nke ozo di ugbu a ma a na-achịkwa ọnụọgụ nke 1.045. A na-arụ ọrụ iji gbanye ọkwa 198 larịị ka ọ bụrụ ngabiga.

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